11R LITERARY TERMSAll students should:
- Know the following elements
- Be able to recognize them when they appear in literature
Write about how an author’s use of literary elements affects the piece of literature and the reader’s understanding of the piece.
Strive to learn even more literary terms by clicking on the AP Terms page
TYPES OF LITERATURE
Novel – your basic book that gives a life lesson – To Kill A Mockingbird
Drama (play) – The Tragedy of Hamlet, A Raisin in the Sun, The Crucible
Poems - titles go in quotation marks!
Essays – usually nonfiction, can be narrative, personal, memoir -- titles in quotation marks!
Short Stories – brief work of fiction – titles in quotation marks!
ELEMENTS AND TECHNIQUES OF LITERATURE
Point of View/Narration – who is telling the story, whose eyes do we see something through, in poetry this is called the speaker
Characters – the people in a story, - Major or Minor
Characterization – the description of a character: “John Proctor is characterized as a man of great integrity, tortured by his own inner guilt.”
Protagonist – the main character, action revolves around them, reader wants them to succeed
Antagonist – opposes the protagonist and hinders their success
Tragic Hero – main character who has a downfall, partly as a result of their own actions
Tragic flaw – the trait that brought them down – Brutus – easily manipulated
Setting – the time and place of a story
Plot – order of events in a work of literature
Climax – the turning point of a work of literature
Theme- the life idea or lesson the reader learns in a work of literature
Conflict – the struggle between opposing forces in work Internal – man vs. self
External – man vs. man, society, nature
Mood – the emotional quality of a literary work. Created by author’s use of imagery, diction (word choice), events in story, etc…
Irony – the contrast between expected and actual meaning or situation. Ex: It was ironic that the character only found meaning in his life by dying.
Foreshadowing – clues or hints of upcoming events
Suspense – feeling of anticipation the writer creates, makes reader want to keep reading
Repetition – use of words or phrases over again to create an effect
Imagery – descriptive writing that paints a picture in the reader’s head and calls to any one of the five senses
Tone – the attitude of the speaker toward the subject, the feeling of a work
Symbolism – using objects to represent something else
Figurative Language - Includes metaphor, simile, and personification, hyperbole. Any expression with a meaning other than literal
Metaphor – comparing something to something else without using like or as Ex: Life without love is an empty field.
Simile - comparing something to something else using the words like or as Ex: What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?
Personification – giving human qualities to inhuman things
The clock laughed, mocking me as I rushed to finish the assignment.
Hyperbole – exaggeration for effect
I am so hungry I could eat everything in the restaurant!
Onomatopoeia – use of words that imitate sounds – buzz, snap, crackle
Rhyme - lines end with same sound
Stanzas – group of lines in a poem